Inhaler Aerosol Generator

Because the aerosol produced by PreciseInhale® is controlled, it is easily exposed in a range of exposure modules. The aerosol can be sourced from dry powders, inhalers or nebulized solutions, optimizing conditions for a wide range of substrates. PreciseInhale® works as an exposure platform for small-scale inhalation experiments by precisely dosing animals in vivo, lungs ex vivo, and depositing material for in vitro exposure and dissolution testing.

Separating aerosol generation and dispensing

Aerosols are generated with a high-power air jet of 10-160 bar pressure. The energy is then siphoned off, leaving a plume of aerosol that is ‘pulled’ into a fine stream by a vacuum pump, enabling it to be dispensed separately across a range of exposure modules.

PreciseInhale®’s software monitors and measures aerosol in real time.

Automated software and a light-scattering device maps and measures the aerosol concentration and breathing pattern in real time. This enables researchers to customize their aerosol to their exact needs, and generates detailed voluminous PK data, including particle size distribution data and Tmax and Cmax curves.

Exposure modules

This nose-only module exposes single rodents to respirable aerosols from PreciseInhale®. Safely, gently, and precisely, reducing standard deviation, the number of test animals needed, and obtaining highly reliable pharmacokinetic data.

  • Precision dosing by individual measurement of aerosol concentration and inhalation parameters
  • <10% in Standard Deviation
  • Ideal for repeated exposures
  • Low substance consumption, <100 mg


With the module for intratracheal inhalation exposures of rodents to respirable aerosols by the PreciseInhale® system, it is possible following administration to obtain pharmacokinetic data resembling clinical inhalation exposures.

  • Lung specific aerosol exposure, bypassing the nose
  • Precision dosing by individual measurement of aerosol concentration and inhalation parameters
  • <10% in Standard Deviation
  • Low substance consumption, <100 mg

DissolvIt ® enables in vitro simulation of absorption and dissolution of respirable particles in the lung epithelium.

  • Cmax and Tmax values
  • Excellent ranking tool
  • Identifying the most promising drug candidates

In the patented DissolvIt®, in vitro module, dry powder particles are deposited on a glass surface by PreciseInhale®. The particles are then brought into contact with a simulated lung/airway mucus and the dissolution is studied, from the ‘luminal’ side through optical microscopy and from the ‘vascular’ side by chemical analysis of a flow-past perfusion medium.

XposeALI ®3D cell exposure module combines aerosol capability with 3D cell models cultured at an Air-Liquid Interface (ALI). It enables studies of cellular effects induced by airborne particles.

  • Cell exposures with aerosol generated from dry powder, inhaler or nebulized solution
  • Lung-like exposure conditions
  • Aerosol deposition on cells, not on insert walls or in the media

Per Gerde, Pär Ewing, Lena Låstbom, Åke Ryrfeldt, Juri Waher & Göran Lidén (2004) A Novel Method to Aerosolize Powder for Short Inhalation Exposures at High Concentrations: Isolated Rat Lungs Exposed to Respirable Diesel Soot, Inhalation Toxicology, 16:1, 45-52, DOI: 10.1080/08958370490258381

Alessandro Fioni, PhD, Ewa Selg, MD, PhD, Valentina Cenacchi, BS, Fernando Acevedo, PhD, Giandomenico Brogin, BS, Per Gerde, PhD, and Paola Puccini,Investigation of Lung Pharmacokinetic of the Novel PDE4 Inhibitor CHF6001 in Preclinical Models: Evaluation of the PreciseInhale Technology, JOURNAL OF AEROSOL MEDICINE AND PULMONARY DRUG DELIVERY. Volume 30, Number 0, 2017, Pp. 1–10, DOI: 10.1089/jamp.2017.1369

Per Gerde, Maria Malmlof, Lina Havsborn, Carl-Olof Sjöberg, Pär Ewing, Stefan Eirefelt, and Katarina Ekelund 5,* DissolvIt: An In Vitro Method for Simulating the Dissolution and Absorption of Inhaled Dry Powder Drugs in the Lungs ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies, VOL. 15 NO. 2  FEBRUARY/MARCH 2017 DOI: 10.1089/adt.2017.779

Ji J, Hedelin A, MalmloÈf M, Kessler V,Seisenbaeva G, Gerde P, et al. (2017) Development of Combining of Human Bronchial Mucosa Models with XposeALI® for Exposure of Air Pollution Nanoparticles. PLoS ONE 12(1): e0170428. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0170428

Per Gerde, PhD, Mattias Nowenwik, MSc, Carl-Olof Sjöberg, MSc, and Ewa Selg, MD, PhD Adapting the Aerogen Mesh Nebulizer for Dried Aerosol Exposures Using the PreciseInhale Platform JOURNAL OF AEROSOL MEDICINE AND PULMONARY DRUG DELIVERY. Volume 32, Number 0, 2019, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Pp. 1–11, DOI: 10.1089/jamp.2019.1554

Biorelevant dissolution to differentiate formulation performance for inhalation. Beatriz Noriega (Hovione FarmaCiencia SA, Portugal /Med.ULisboa, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade de Lisboa) Maria Malmlöf, Per Gerde (Inhalation Sciences, Huddinge, Sweden / Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden) Mattias Nowenwik (ISAB) Luisa Corvo2 , Eunice Costa (Med.ULisboa, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade de Lisboa) Poster 58, DDL 2019 Conference, December 2019.

Characterisation of aerosols from solution-based pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) when delivered by PreciseInhale®. Wachirun Terakosolphan (Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, King’s College London, UK), Maria Malmlöf (ISAB, Sweden), David Lewis (Chiesi Limited, Chippenham, UK), Ben Forbes (Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, King’s College London, UK). DDL poster 2017.

Aerosolizing PulmoSolTM and PulmoSphereTM with the PreciseInhale®  system. Nowenwik, M (ISAB, Sweden), Malmlöf, M (ISAB, Sweden), Kadrichu, N (Novartis USA), Gerde, P (ISAB, KI Institute of Environmental Medicine, Sweden). ISAM conference poster, 2017.

Effect of Compressed Air Pressure on Particle Size Distribution During Aerosol Generation with Ultrafine TiO2. Maria Malmlöf (ISAB), Mattias Nowenwik (ISAB), Per Gerde (ISAB, KI Institute of Environmental Medicine), DDL poster 2017.

Effect of using bio-relevant media in the DissolvIt ® system to measure dissolution of fluticasone propionate from Flixotide 50 µg Evohaler, joint poster King’s College London, ISAB. Authors: Mireille Hassoun, Maria Malmlöf, Abhinav Kumar, Sukhi Bansal, Mattias Nowenwik, Per Gerde, Mark Parry, Ben Forbes. Poster: DDL27, 2016.


<100 mg of substance for a complete PK-study.
Precision dosing, <10% SD.
Flexible aerosol sources: Dry Powder (API) Nebulized solution Inhalers (DPI/ pMDI).
IVIVC – minimized translational errors.
3R –reduce, refine and replace animal tests.

Research Areas

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.


Systemic pharmacokinetics.
Lung specific pharmacokinetics.
Early toxicology testing.
Dissolution and absortion testing.
Ranking of drug candidates.
Vaccine development.
Aerosol particle size determination.
Toxicology studies.
Nanoparticle exposure pollutants, e.g. diesel soot exposure.
Cellular effects after exposure.